Development of Functionally Graded
Ceramics by Lithography-based
Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM)

Special INterest is given today to Functionally Graded Ceramics (FGCs) since the demand on highly-complex technical ceramics is increasing in many applications.


Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are type of materials in which a continuous or stepped change in composition and/or microstructure (e.g., chemical properties, grains size, structure, texturization level, density, porosity) results in change of features. The spread of use of FGMs was slow in the past due to limitations in conventional manufacturing methods. Parallel to improvements in manufacturing technologies, research on processing of FGMs has increased exponentially in the last 20 years. A special attention is given today to Functionally Graded Ceramics (FGCs) since high-complex technical ceramics are increasingly required in almost every field of applications.

Conventional methods used for the manufacturing of FGCs have limitations in production of cost-efficient, customized, and complex net-shaped ceramics. Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods offer new possibilities by providing flexibility for design of material composition, complicated shapes and functional complexity. Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM) method was developed by Lithoz GmbH as an enhancement of Stereolithography (SLA) and Digital Light Processing (DLP) technology (see Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Working Principle of LCM


The overall objective of GraCerLit project is to develop an LCM printing setup and methodologies for additive manufacturing of FGCs by simultaneous processing of two photocurable feedstocks that will allow series production of customized and multifunctional components with a control of the architecture and microstructure at all scales. In order to reach this overall objective, the project will focus at three different levels (specific objectives);

1)  Design of an LCM printing setup that will allow grading in material by simultaneous processing of two photocurable feedstocks.

2) Production and characterization of FGC samples by using proposed processing metholodogies.

3) Generation of process-structure-property (PSP) relations by using data-driven Machine Learning (ML) algorithms.

Project Management

WP1. Project Management and Training

WP2. State-of-art, Specifications and Needs Assessment

WP3. Development of a Lithography-based Printing Setup

WP4. Production and Characterization of Functionally Graded Ceramic (FGC) Samples

WP5. Development of Process -Structure-Property (PSP) Relations with Machine Learning

WP6. Dissemination, Exploitation and Communication (DEC) of Results

In Fig. 2, the inter-relations between the work packages in GraCerLit project is shown. The specific objectives are given as three separate work packages (WP3, WP4 and WP5).

One independent work package is dedicated for each following activity namely, project management and training (WP1), state-of-art, specifications and needs assessment (WP2), DEC of results (WP6). WP1 and WP6 will run parallel to other WPs for the entire lifecycle of the project. The WP1, WP2 and WP6 have direct two-way knowledge transfer to scientific work packages WP3, WP4 and WP5. There will also be a two-way transfer of knowledge and feedback between scientific work packages that will ensure the successful execution of core research-based project activities.

Figure 2: Inter-relations between the work packages


Whilst the ER is already an accomplished ceramic scientist, the fellowship will expand the ER’s research capacity along three main axes. First, the ER will gain substantial research experience in areas (e.g., additive manufacturing, FGCs) aligned to but outside of the ER’s existing research strengths. Second, high impact publications arising from the fellowship research, and a series of DEC activities will enhance the ER’s international profile. Third, extensive interactions with researchers within and beyond the European area will broaden the ER’s professional network opening interdisciplinary collaborations into the future.


A separate work package is planned for strategic planning, execution, and measure of impact of dissemination, exploitation, and communication (DEC) of results. The research outputs will be both in written form in journals and conference proceedings and as oral presentations in seminars, workshops, and conferences. The progress of the GraCerLit project will also be disseminated through media available to stakeholders. The ER will attend exhibitions and fairs to get information about the developments in the research field and share his results with the academic/non-academic stakeholders.


Dr.-Ing. Serkan Nohut

Postdoctoral Fellow

Dr. Martin Schwentenwein



This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 101020104


Lithoz GmbH
Mollardgasse 85a/2/64-69
1060 Wien
+43 1 9346612 200

Questions and Requests

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